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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • July 01, 1993

    V. Tolubko, 'Nuclear Weapons, Space Fleet: Decisions Cannot be Delayed'

    In a report to the Verkhovna Rada, Tolubko discusses three national security issues. He argues that Ukraine should either develop its own nuclear weapons industry or operate Ukrainian nuclear weapons jointly with Russia. He suggests that Ukraine should try to preserve its status as a space nation and should lease the naval base in Crimea to Russia.

  • July 07, 1993

    Letter, T. J. de Waal, Executive General Manager of Armscor, Regarding Relations with Israel

    Armscor letter discussing Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin

  • July 22, 1993

    Minister A.M. Zlenko to Prime Minister of Ukraine K.D. Kuchma

    Zlenko sends a report to Kuchma suggesting a divergence in position between Russian the Ukraine on the problems related to nuclear weapons located in Ukraine.

  • July 27, 1993

    Letter No. UKOR/21-830, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, M.P. Makarevych, to Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine, V.M. Shamarov

    Makarevych describes possible alternate scenarios for ways forward on Ukraine's proposals to maintain nuclear weapons in Ukrainian territory and to adopt START-1 and the Lisbon Protocol.

  • August 12, 1993

    V.N. Shcherbin, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 'Concerning the Situation at the 4th Unit'

    An outline of the reasons for the deterioration of the 4th block, largely owing to ventilation problems causing condensation to form, which freezes during winter and causes decay that can lead to the washing of nuclear particles into the surrounding atmosphere/groundwater. The report also proposes several emergency measures, such as improving ventilation systems, cleaning water from the block, and setting up of an investigation.

  • September 16, 1993

    Memorandum from William H. Itoh for Leon Fuerth et al, 'Notification of Principals Committee Meeting on PRD-13, Peacekeeping'

    A draft version of PDD-25, the Clinton Administration's policy on multilateral peace operations.

  • September 23, 1993

    Report, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 'The Agency’s Verification Activities in South Africa'

    Report by Director General of the IAEA on the Agency’s verification activities in South Africa and the status of the country's abandoned nuclear weapons program. The report includes an overview of the history of the program.

  • November 03, 1993

    Cable, South African Department of Foreign Affairs, Minutes of Multilateral Coordination Meeting on 21 September 1993 Regarding Armscor

    Minutes of a meeting describing jurisdictional confusion between Armscor and its corporate offshoot Denel.

  • 1994

    Annex, 'Terms of Reference of the President of the Republic of South Africa to the Commission of Inquiry into the Alleged Arms Transactions Between Armscor and One Eli Wazan and Other Related Matters'

    Presidential directive setting out the terms of reference for the Cameron Commission to inquire about all of Armscor's recent arms deals.

  • 1994

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Top Political Advisors Concerning Diplomacy with the United States and Russia

  • 1994

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Top Political Advisors to Discuss a Visit by Prime Minister Tariq Aziz to the United Nations

    Iraqi Prime Minister Tariq Aziz reports on his visit to the United Nations and progress of UN inspections of Iraq's WMD projects.

  • 1994

    Iraqi Cabinet Meeting with Saddam Hussein and the Atomic Energy Committee

    Saddam and his ministers discuss the reorganization and rebuilding of the Iraqi nuclear program.

  • 1994

    Excerpts from the Memoirs of Wladyslaw Gomulka Concerning the Polish Communist Leader's Meetings with Stalin in 1944-1945

    Gomulka describes the meeting of the KRN delegation with Stalin in 1944. He describes his personal meetings with Stalin in 1944-45, summarizing Stalin's views on agriculture, collectivization, Poland's international relations, and the communist Party in Poland.

  • January 10, 1994

    Interview with Myer 'Mike' Feldman by Avner Cohen

    Transcript of interview by Avner Cohen with senior Kennedy advisor Myer "Mike" Feldman. Myer Feldman, close aide to JFK and special liason to Israel, discusses the negotiations between the US and Israel regarding the Non-Proliferation treaty in this 1994 interview.

  • January 14, 1994

    German Federal Foreign Office, 'British Invitation to the Western Coordination Meeting on 14 January 1994 at the Canadian UN Mission and British Paper on Options and Modalities of NPT Extension'

    Copy of a UK paper summarizing NPT extension options and their implications.

  • January 20, 1994

    Phone Interview with Edwin Kintner by Avner Cohen and Marvin Miller

    Transcript of a phone interview with Edwin Kintner by Avner Cohen and Marvin Miller. Edwin Kintner (1920-2010) was a distinguished nuclear engineer and senior staff member of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) through the 1960s and 70s who participated in at least two US inspection teams sent to the Dimona nuclear facility. Kintner recounts how thoroughly he and his partners searched the Dimona site for evidence of plutonium reprocessing activities and expresses shock upon learning that he and his team had been fooled all along.

  • January 24, 1994

    Letter of President L. Kravchuk to Speaker of the Verkhovna Rada I. Plyushch

    Ukrainian President Kravchuk describes the completion of a trilateral agreement with the United States and Russia regarding the dismantling of Ukraine's nuclear weapons.

  • March 08, 1994

    Letter, South African Ambassador R. F. Botha

  • April 15, 1994

    Telegram, US Defense Intelligence Agency, 'South Africa: Nuclear Program in Turmoil'

    With the liquidation of South Africa’s weapons program, “disgruntled” scientists under threat of lay-off “threatened to reveal closely guarded secrets … unless they receive severance pay.”

  • June 07, 1994

    Note, Greek Presidency of the Council on Working Group on Non-Proliferation of the European Union

    In 1994, the European Union decided for the first time to play a role in the NPT Review Conference, with a view towards the NPT Review and Extension Conference in 1995. This note stipulated that the EU should demonstrate consensus in support of extending the NPT and persuading non-members to join the treaty.