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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • 1993

    Meeting between UN Biological Inspectors and Iraqi Officials Including Dr. Rihab Taha

    Iraqi officials and United Nations inspectors discuss the history of Iraq's biological weapons development.

  • 1993

    Outstanding Leadership and Brilliant Victory (Excerpts)

    An official North Korean history of the Korean War.

  • January 08, 1993

    Deputy Foreign Minister of Ukraine B. I. Tarasiuk, 'Report on the Results of the Ukrainian-American Political Consultations'

    The Deputy Foreign Minister of Ukraine reports on the success of talks held in Washington between the United States and Ukraine, outlining the areas of discussion and future cooperation.

  • January 26, 1993

    Speech by the Head of Delegation of Ukraine Y. I. Kostenko at the Opening of Negotiations with the Russian Federation on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

    At the opening of negotiations with Russia on the elimination of nuclear weapons from Ukraine, Kostenko discusses Ukraine's main concerns: ensuring reliable operation and storage of nuclear warheads in Ukraine until their liquidation, maintaining the Armed Forces of the CIS' control over the operation of Ukraine's nuclear arms, and the recognition that all weapons on Ukrainian territory or removed to Russia after independence belong to Ukraine which will determine how and where to safely dismantle them.

  • February 03, 1993

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, 'Possible Consequences of Alternative Approaches to Implementation of Ukraine’s Nuclear Policy (Analytical Report)'

    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine issues an analytical report on the possible consequences of alternative approaches by Ukraine in the implementation of nuclear policy.

  • February 08, 1993

    Cable from Brazilian Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Washington, 'Brazil-France. Science and technology. Visit of D. José Israel Vargas. Meeting with Minister Hubert Curien.'

    This cable describes the visit of Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology José Israel Vargas to France. Israel Vargas met his French counterpart Minister of Science and Space Hubert Curien. Israel Vargas asked the French minister about the possibility of a French contribution to the Brazilian space program by transferring technology. Curien answered that this is not possible because the French government respects its international commitments regarding the transfer of sensitive technologies.

  • February 18, 1993

    Statement by Leonid M. Kravchuk, President of Ukraine, at the World Economic Forum, Davos, 30 January 1993: 'How to Prevent the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons'

  • February 19, 1993

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, 'Additional Information on Possible Consequences of Alternative Approaches to Ukraine’s Nuclear Policy'

    Zlenko provides the Verkhovna Rada with additional information on the possible consequences of alternative approaches to Ukrainian nuclear policy following the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' earlier report, including the capital investments necessary to maintain a nuclear missile complex in Ukraine, the poilitical ramifications of changing Ukraine's status to a nuclear owning country, the extent of security gaurantees to Ukraine from nuclear states, and Ukraine's intent to not violate the NPT.

  • March 03, 1993

    On Comprehensive Solution of a Wide Range of Issues related to the Deployment of Strategic Nuclear Weapons and Tactical Nuclear Warheads on the Territory of Ukraine, Removed in the Spring of 1992 from Ukraine for Dismantlement and Elimination

    This report on the Ukrainian-Russian negotiations on nuclear weapons outlines the position of both Russia and Ukraine.

  • March 24, 1993

    Speech by South African President F.W. De Klerk to a Joint Session of Parliment on Accession to the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    The Permanent Representative of South Africa to the United Nations sends an extract of a speech delivered by South African President F. W. de Klerk announcing developments relating to South Africa’s nuclear capability, the normalization of international relations and accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

  • April 04, 1993

    Cable Ambassador Ricupero to the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-United States. Alcântara. Visit of Lockheed representative.'

    This report describes the meeting between the Brazilian diplomat Carmen Moura and Lockheed’s representatives Kenneth Fisher and Noel Horn. The main issue discussed at the meeting was the feasibility of the creation of the joint venture between Lockheed, the Russian Kruchinev and the Brazilian group Monteiro Aranha. The venture would utilize American made satellites from Lockheed, satellite launch vehicles from Kruchinev and the Brazilian launching site at Alcântara Launch Center.

  • April 17, 1993

    Cable from Brazilian Ambassador Ricupero to the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-USA. Sensitive technologies. Non-proliferation. Meeting with the DAS for non-proliferation.'

    On April 1993, Brazilian diplomats met once more with Robert Einhorn, now Deputy Assistant Secretary for Chemical Weapons and Proliferation. Einhorn was mainly concerned with the delay in the approval of the export control legislation in Brazil and wondered if the issue was not losing priority in the Brazilian government’s agenda. He also tried to discourage the development of Brazilian SLV by arguing that it would not be economically advantageous for the country.

  • April 21, 1993

    Minister A.M. Zlenko to Prime Minister of Ukraine L.D. Kuchma

    Zlenko sends the Prime Minister of Ukraine a report on the possible consequences of Ukraine not joining the NPT, particularly the succession of Ukraine of to the obligations of the former USSR to the NPT. The report concludes that Ukraine can either ratify the NPT as a non-nuclear state and adhere to its previously stated intentions on nuclear weapons or not ratify the NPT. It suggests that Ukraine should participate in the NPT along with START-1 and the Lisbon Protocol.

  • April 21, 1993

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and State Committee of Ukraine for Nuclear and Radioactive Security, 'Possible Consequences of Ukraine Not Joining the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Analytical Report)'

    The Foreign Ministry issues a report on the possible consequences of not joining the NPT given Ukraine's position, following the breakup of the USSR, as neither a nuclear or non-nuclear state.

  • April 29, 1993

    Memorandum for Marc Grossman from William H. Itoh, 'Presidential Memcons with Presidents Walesa, Iliescu, and Zhelev'

    Clinton and Walesa discuss U.S.-Polish relations and steps their countries could take to coordinate policy vis-a-vis Russia. (Clinton's memcons with Iliescu and Zhelev were withheld during declassification in September 2019.)

  • April 30, 1993

    Letter, Boris Yeltsin, President of the Russian Federation, to L.M. Kravchuk

    Boris Yeltsin writes to Kravchuk urging Ukraine to follow through with the implementation of START-1 as discussed per their negotiations in Moscow. He says that Russia will not recognize Ukraine's property right to nuclear weapons in Ukrainian territory and that Ukraine cannot use CIS structures to control its nuclear forces.To aid in the recycling of nuclear warheads in Ukraine, Yeltsin offers Russian assistance.

  • May 27, 1993

    Letter from G.F. Kunadze to E.A. Ambartsumov

    G.F. Kunadze is alarmed over North Korea's withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • June 03, 1993

    Letter from Foreign Minister A. Zlenko to President L. Kravchuk on Draft Treaty on Security Guarantees

    The Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sends a draft of a legally binding agreement between Ukraine and the five permanent UN Security Council members to be signed in conjunction with Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

  • June 03, 1993

    Treaty on the Guarantees of the National Security of Ukraine in connection to its Accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 1968 (Draft)

    Draft of a legally binding agreement for national security guarantees to be signed in conjunction with Ukraine's signing of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

  • June 15, 1993

    Interview with Bertrand Goldschmidt by Avner Cohen

    Transcript of Avner Cohen's 1993 interview with Dr. Bertrand Goldschmidt. Goldschmidt was a leading French nuclear scientist who helped develop the PUREX plutonium extraction technique. In this interview, Goldschmidt explains the background of the French role in constructing the Dimona nuclear facility.