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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • April 14, 1987

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'The FNI negotiations. The problem of SRINF and that of the "conversion". West Germany's stance'

    The document briefly describes the US and Soviet views on the question of SRINF reductions, and discusses the German concerns about the process.

  • April 14, 1987

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'The issue of SRINF. Italy's position'

    The document spells out the Italian position in the debate over SRINF reductions and introduces three hypothetical solutions.

  • April 15, 1987

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Meeting between the Minister [Andreotti] and Minister Genscher'

    Notes from the meeting between Foreign Minister of Italy, Giulio Andreotti, and Foreign Minister of West Germany, Hans-Dietrich Genscher. The theme of the discussion is strengthening of the bilateral relationship between Italy and West Germany, the two major non-nuclear powers in Europe.

  • May, 1987

    Plan of Negotiations between M.S. Gorbachev and the President of the United States of America, R. Reagan before the first trip to Washington

    Soviet plan for negotiations between Gorbachev and Reagan. Topics covered include peacemaking efforts in the Near East, nuclear limitation, and the issue of Afghanistan.

  • May 06, 1987

    Letter from the Ambassador Sergio Romano to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Andreotti

    Italian Ambassador to Moscow, Romano, shares his reflections on the change in Soviet SDI strategy. Romano's analysis underlines the politically fragile and potentially dangerous situation that could emerge as the result of nuclear disarmament in Europe.

  • May 06, 1987

    Transcript of Conversation between Todor Zhivokov and Zhao Ziyang in Beijing

    Talks with Zhao Ziyang 6 of May 1987 in Beijing regarding Chinese and Bulgarian Communist policies.

  • May 09, 1987

    Telegram by Permanent Representative to NATO Fulci to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'General Rogers' position on US-USSR negotiations for nuclear arms control (LRINF and SRINF)'

    Telegram from Italy's permanent representative to NATO re-caps the controversial position presented by the Supreme Allied Commander Rogers. General Rogers criticizes the Reagan administration's strategy and expresses concern over the disparity between NATO capabilities and those of the Warsaw Pact.

  • May 19, 1987

    Letter from NATO's Secretary General Lord Carrington to Minister of Foreign Affairs Andreotti

    Both Guidi and Carrington share the concern that NATO's High-level Task Force has come to a deadlock in regard to conventional disarmament. Carrington advocates for direct involvement at the ministerial level to end the standstill.

  • May 28, 1987

    Letter from Rolf Berthold to Cde. Erich Honecker

    In anticipation of a visit by Zhao Ziyang to East Germany, the Ambassador of the GDR in Beijing reports on China's economic reforms, the leadership within the Chinese Communist Party, and China's relations with the GDR, the Soviet Union, the United States, and Japan.

  • September 08, 1987

    Memorandum of a conversation by the Honorary Chairman of the SPD, Brandt, with the General Secretary of the CC of the SED and Chairman of the State Council of the GDR, Honecker, in Bonn, 8 September 1987

    Memorandum for Brandt and Honecker on discussions for reducing chemical and nuclear weapons in Europe, relations between social democrats and communists and how they influence greater European nations.

  • November 06, 1987

    Telegram by Permanent Representative to NATO Fulci to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'NPG. Point I of the agenda. Current state of nuclear forces and related issues'

    The telegram comments on the recent NPG ministerial session. It describes the state of negotiations around the elimination of INFs in the light of the upcoming Washington summit where the treaty is expected to be signed.

  • November 06, 1987

    Telegram by the Italian Embassy in Bonn to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'NPG meeting in Monterey. West Germany's reactions'

    Italian Embassy in Bonn reports German reactions to the decisions taken at the Nuclear Planning Group meeting in Monterey.

  • November 25, 1987

    Telegram by Permanent Representative to NATO Fulci to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Council. Consultations with Secretary of State Shultz'

    Summary of the discussions between Secretary of State Shultz and Minister of Foreign Affairs Shevardnadze in preparation for the Washington Summit. Shultz confirms that a joint working text has been produced and the preprations for signing the INF treaty in Washington are well underway.

  • November 25, 1987

    Telegram by Permanent Representative to NATO Fulci to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Council with US Secretary of State Shultz in view of the US-USSR meeting to be held in Washington - Discussion'

    The permanent representative of Italy to NATO offers a summary of the discussion among the NATO members that followed Secretary of State Shultz's briefing. There is a consensus among the member states of the positive effects of the INF treaty to international security.

  • November 25, 1987

    Telegram by Permanent Representative to NATO Fulci to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Council. Consultation with US Secretary of State Shultz in view of the US-USSR meeting to be held in Washington'

    Summary of the discussions between Secretary of State Shultz and Minister of Foreign Affairs Shevardnadze in preparation for the Washington Summit. Constructive talks focused on disarmament, human rights and bilateral relations.

  • December 11, 1987

    Telegram by Permanent Representative to NATO Fulci to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Council. US Secretary of State Shultz's presentation about the Reagan-Gorbachev meeting. Disarmament and arms control issues'

    The permanenent representative of Italy to NATO summarizes the presentation by Secretary of State Shultz following the signing of the INF treaty. Shultz presents the treaty as a great success, both in terms of its content, as well as a demonstration of Atlantic solidarity.

  • February 09, 1988

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Report on India's response to the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty by the United States and Soviet Union. India supportive of disarmament efforts, in part because of its concerns about China and Pakistan. Describes a speech made by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi at the Six Nation Five Continent Peace Initiative summit in January at Stockholm.

  • March 05, 1988

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'NATO summit in Bruxelles (2nd-3rd March 1988)'

    The document describes the Declaration produced at the meeting of Heads of state and governments in Brussels. The declaration reaffirms solidarity between the Western allies and the essential nature of the transatlantic relations in managing security and disarmament.

  • April 06, 1988

    Diplomatic Advisor of the Prime Minister Fontana Giusti, 'Memorandum for President Goria'

    Briefing for PM Goria in preparation for his meeting with Secretary General Lord Carrington offers an overview of topics discussed by Foreign Minister Andreotti and Carrington the previous day. Key issues examined included European public opinion on NATO, the weak state of transatlantic relations, and questions related to weapons modernization and disarmament.

  • April 14, 1988

    Lecture by Sergei Akhromeyev, 'The Current State of Soviet Military Doctrine'

    This is a transcript of a lecture delivered by Sergei Akhromeyev, the Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces, to the Polish General Staff about Soviet military doctrine in early 1988. The document defines what the Soviets meant by military doctrine, differentiating between the doctrine of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact by stressing the former’s wider range objectives, especially concerning the use of strategic nuclear weapons. In addition, it identifies contemporary issues facing Soviet doctrine and analyzes topics such as nuclear non-proliferation, reduction of nuclear stockpiles and refutes the idea that nuclear weapons should be used in a counter-offensive operation. It stresses the importance of defense, negating offensive military preparedness in lieu of purely defensive Warsaw Pact capabilities (albeit altogether sufficient to successfully deter a NATO attack from the West). It also discusses the results of the March 2-3 1988 NATO talks and concludes that the West is not willing to stop the arms race and is increasing its offensive capabilities. The Warsaw Pact’s response should include increased military research, better vigilance to capture signals of a possible attack and more tactical and technical training for the military command. It asserts that even though a war is less likely than in the past, quoting Gorbachev, “the nature of capitalism itself can be the cause of war.”