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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • December 05, 1979

    Exchange of notes, Defense Minister Scholten (also to other NATO Defense ministers) – British Defense Secretary for Defense

    Defense Minister Scholten writes to other NATO Defense Ministers to clarify the position of the Netherlands on TNF modernization. He focuses on issues related to the size of the modernization program, which in its current state he fears is too large, and also the possibility of separating the issues of making a decision on modernization and then implementing it. The British Defense Secretary then writes to refute each of his concerns on the wider issue of TNF modernization. An addendum focuses more specifically on the issues relating to the Netherlands.

  • December 06, 1979

    Memorandum of conversation between Dutch Prime Minister van Agt and British Prime Minister Thatcher

    Conversation between Dutch Prime Minister van Agt and British Prime Minister Thatcher. Also present were advisors Merckelbach and Alexander. Conversation centers on the political situation in the Netherlands, where resistance to TNF modernization has become widespread. Thatcher questions why the Dutch people fail to recognize the possible threat from the Soviet Union, suggesting "those who prefer being red over being dead ignore the many who are both red and dead."

  • December 06, 1979

    Report of the conversation between Italian Presidente del Consiglio Cossiga and Prime-Minister van Agt

    Memorandum of conversation between Italian Prime Minister Frencesco Cossiga and Dutch Prime Minister Andreas van Agt. Cossiga opens the conversation by outlining the Italian government's support for limited TNF modernization and rapid ratification of SALT II. In response and at the behest of his government, van Agt suggests decoupling the INF production and deployment decisions.

  • December 07, 1979

    Draft conclusions from the discussions in Washington on December 7, 1979

    A summary of points made during U.S.-Dutch discussions related to TNF. The Dutch will not oppose NATO’s plans, but only postpone its own decision. However, the Dutch will continue to register their reservations regarding the scope of modernization. The U.S. disagrees with a Dutch proposal to link TNF modernization with SALT II ratification and states that the Dutch should refrain from critiquing TNF modernization since it is postponing its own decision on the issue.

  • December 07, 1979

    Memorandum of conversation, Prime-Minister Van Agt – President Carter (and others)

    Participants in the meeting included President Carter, Minister Vance, MP van Agt and also Min. Van der Klaauw, Zbigniew Brzezinksi, David Aaron, Tammenoms Bakker, and Merckelbach. Conversation revolves around TNF modernization and arms negotiation with the Soviet Union. Both parties discuss domestic difficulties shaping how these issues are presented and pursued.

  • December 07, 1979

    Memorandum of Conversation between Dutch Prime Minister Van Agt, Secretary Vance, NSA Brzezinski, and Minister Van der Klaauw

    Memorandum of conversation between Secretary Vance, National Security Advisor Brzezinski, Dutch Prime Minister Van Agt, and Minister Van der Klaauw. The conversation focuses on Dutch domestic sentiment toward TNF modernization and SALT II.

  • December 10, 1979

    Major points from the discussions in Brussels, Rome, London, Washington, Bonn

    An outline of key points made in each of several meetings over a one week period. Includes the following: the Netherlands and Belgium will try to decide as late and as simultaneously as possible on TNF modernization; Italy will try to help the Dutch influence FRG and U.S. positions; U.K. is committed to helping Dutch cabinet remain intact; FRG does not oppose the Dutch move to delay their decision but also believes Netherlands should not try to block NATO decision-making.

  • April 04, 1984

    Constraints on the foreign policy of the Netherlands

    A memo to Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi from his foreign policy advisor Antonio Badini about the domestic constraints on Dutch foreign policy.

  • November 06, 1987

    Telegram by Permanent Representative to NATO Fulci to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'NPG, Point II-A of the agenda (implementation of the decision of 12th December 1979: State of deployments)'

    The telegram compiles updates from Defence Ministers (UK, West Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy) on the status of deployment of Pershing II and Cruise missiles decided in December 1979.

  • December 07, 1989

    Johann Plattner, Austrian Foreign Ministry, 'Program of Chancellor Kohl on German unification; Reaction of the Western states'

    The document outlines other countries' reactions to the prospect of German Reunification. The fears of France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg are cataloged. In addition, Western allies such as the United States, United Kingdom, and France are marked as being hopeful for the upcoming reunion of the two states.

  • October 14, 2016

    Oral History Interview with Jaap Ramaker

    Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva.

  • February 07, 2017

    Oral History Interview with Ben Sanders

    Co-founder of the Programme for Promoting Nuclear Non-Proliferation (PPNN) and advisor to the Conference President Dhanapala.