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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September 21, 1971

    Note from CNEN Vice-President to MIC on NPN

    Note from CNEN Vice-President regarding emerging problems with NPN project, Enrico Fermi ship and issue of contract with french nuclear agency (CEA) for the supply of nuclear fuel. Annex Missing.

  • October 09, 1971

    Note by CSMM to MD Cabinet and PDC on NPN

    Note by CSMM on Ministry of Merchant Navy's proposal to coordinate the NPN project. Includes a summary of the current state of the project.

  • May 18, 1972

    Speech by the Minister of Defense Franco Restivo, 'Tactical use of nuclear weapons, in see, in the Mediterranean area' (NPG, Copenhagen, May 1972)

    Speech by the Minister of Defense providing an overview of the Nuclear Planning Group meeting in Copenhagen. Focuses on the problems of "when" and "why" of employment of nuclear arms in Europe.

  • May 24, 1972

    Memorandum by Chief of Defense Staff, 'Political-military considerations with regards to the ministerial meeting of the NATO Defence Planning Committee' (DPC), Bruxelles

    The document discusses the weak state of European defence in light of the threat posed by Warsaw Pact that continues to increase its capabilities. It underlines the minimal participation and marginal role of Italy in the alliance, demanding a more meaningful financial and military contribution.

  • May 24, 1972

    [Report on Warsaw Pact] Presentation about the information (intelligence) concerning Warsaw Pact's military potential, explained at the meeting of NATO Defence Planning Committee (Bruxelles, 24th May 1972)

    This rather technical document compares the strategic capabilities (conventional and nuclear) of Warsaw Pact and NATO. The document notes that Warsaw Pact has considerably increased its capabilities catching up with the West, and raises the question about Soviet intentions, and whether continuing armament is in line with peaceful coexistence.

  • July 06, 1972

    General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report about the meeting of NATO Defence Planning Committee at the ministerial session (Bruxelles, May 24th 1972)

    Summary of the DPC meeting in Brussels where the alliance members discussed potential responses to the increasing and modernizing capabilities of the Warsaw Pact. Although US Secretary of Defense Laird highlights US commitment to its allies, Italy and other NATO members should not resort to "optimism of convenience", but fully commit to common defense.

  • July 18, 1972

    Nuclear Planning Group, 11th meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense (Copenhagen, May 18th-19th 1972)

    Document sent from Minister of Defense Tanassi to Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti. Topics discussed: comparison of strategic forces (NATO and USSR), studies on potential use of nuclear arms by member states, and the problems of internal consultation within NATO.

  • October 15, 1972

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs Note, 'French military nuclear policy and its consequences for the European unification'

    The note suggests that French motives for developing nuclear capabilities are political rather than based on national security considerations. France seeks to insure a key role in global political and military balance, and its behavior creates unfavorable conditions for the development of common European defense.

  • November 29, 1972

    Letter by Italian Ambassador in Bonn, Mario Luciolli, to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Giuseppe Medici

    A letter from Mario Luciolli, the Italian Ambassador to Bonn, to Foreign Minister Giuseppe Medici. Luciolli discusses problems of both conventional and nuclear defense in Western Europe, expressing concerns over the credibility of NATO's involvement on the continent and advocating for further European integration.

  • December 27, 1972

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs Telespresso (Circular), 'Ministerial session of the Atlantic Council, 7th-8th December 1972'

    Italian perspective on the NATO Council of Ministers meeting in Brussels that discussed the credibility of Western European defense. The document highlights the need for a unified and cohesive negotiation strategy among the allies.

  • January 04, 1973

    General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report of the 12th meeting of the Nuclear Planning Group at a ministerial level, London 26th-27th October 1972

    Document sent by Tanassi (Minister of Defense) to Andreotti (Prime Minister) on the 1973-01-04. Summary of the Nuclear Planning Group meeting in London that includes a discussion about the strategic capabilities of the two blocs, consultation procedures, and recent studies on the possible use of nuclear arms. It raises the question of extending NPG membership to include all alliance members, a suggestion met with a negative response.

  • January 24, 1973

    General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report of the Ministerial Meeting of the NATO Defence Planning Committee (Bruxelles, 6th December 1972), sent by Minister of Defense Tanassi to Prime Minister Andreotti

    Summary of the Defense Planning Committee discussions about the Action plan 1973-78, the problem of standardization, and the common infrastructures program of NATO. It is concluded that there is no realistic alternative to US forces in Europe, and that signs of positive change in Soviet intentions should not be trusted.

  • May 01, 1973

    Report by Diplomatic Advisor of the Prime Minister Andrea Cagiati, 'Atlantic Declaration'

    Cagiati analyzes Kissinger's speech from April 23 in light of conversations between Nixon and Andreotti. The US efforts to emphasize the importance of transatlantic relations and Europe's role in advancing democratic ideas could create an opportunity to relaunch the process of European integration.

  • June 27, 1973

    Telegram by Ambassador Pignatti to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'US-USSR Agreement on the prevention of nuclear war'

    The document describes initial reactions to the signing of the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War in Washington. The new agreement raises concerns over the bipolar focus of US-USSR relations, NATO's traditional strategy, and poses questions related to autonomous European defense.

  • June 27, 1973

    Telegram by Ambassador in Brussels Pignatti to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Soviet-American agreement on preventing nuclear war'

    Summarizes the first comments from Min. Foreign Affairs on the agreement Soviet-American for the Prevention of Nuclear War. It is said that the philosophy of this agreement appears to have contradictions with regard to the classic strategy of NATO and diminish the credibility of the latter. Conceptions NATO military will have to be updated in light of recent agreements and ongoing trends around the Russian-American bipolarity. Just because you are at a "secondary" compared to the two supergrandi, Europeans should take the opportunity arising from this new trend to seriously address the issue of their defense. The prospect more desirable at this stage is an acceleration of proesso European unification, including the appearance of its "independent" defense.

  • July 06, 1973

    General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report of the 13th NPG Meeting held in Ankara, 15th-16th May, 1973

    Summary of the 13th NPG meeting in Ankara in May 1973. Italian Minister of Defense, Tanassi, raises the issue of reviewing the process of launching nuclear weapons in order to secure the potential military and political advantages.

  • December 19, 1973

    Letter from Adm. Polano to GA

    Letter from adm. Polano on the Italian Navy's nuclear program. The letter discusses the activities of the Committee for Military Applications of Nuclear Energy (CAMEN), Italy's preliminary project for an A Bomb, as well as the NPN as an enterprise of military interest.

  • January 19, 1974

    Letter from Deputy CSMM to Gen. Caroli on NPN

    Letter from G. De Boccard, deputy CSMM to gen. F. Caroli on position of the Italian Navy on NPN, views of adm. Polano and CAMEN activities. Annexes missing.

  • January 31, 1974

    Letter by Permanent Representative to NATO Catalano di Melilli to Minister of Foreign Affairs Aldo Moro

    Catalano di Melilli, Italy's permanent representative to NATO, writes to Foreign minister Aldo Moro about the existing confusion in the realm of international relations. He expresses concern over the process of European integration, and underlines the importance of maintaining good relations to the United States.

  • March 25, 1974

    Letter from Albonetti to GA

    Letter from CNEN's Achille Albonetti to Andreotti on nuclear-powered ship “Enrico Fermi” and prospective cooperation with France over nuclear-armed ships.