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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • December 31, 1968

    National Intelligence Estimate, NIE 22-68, 'French Nuclear Weapons and Delivery Capabilities'

    The French nuclear program had been of great concern to US presidents during the 1960s because Paris had defied US pressure and was also suspected of supporting proliferation by aiding the Israeli nuclear program. This recently declassified estimate, prepared at the close of the Johnson administration, gives a picture of a program that was slowing down because of internal financial and economic problems, in part by the impact of the May 1968 student and worker uprising.

  • January 02, 1969

    Letter, Korean Affairs Institute President Yongjeung Kim to UN Secretary-General U Thant, Concerning ROK's involvement in the Vietnam War

    Yongjeung Kim of the Korean Affairs Institute writes U Thant. Kim encloses his letter imploring Park Chung Hee to reconsider sending Korean soldiers to Vietnam and reliance on Washington's support for reunification and domestic affairs.

  • February 03, 1969

    Memorandum for the President [Richard Nixon] from Henry A. Kissinger, 'The Middle East--Some Policy Considerations'

    Kissinger provides Nixon with an overview of achieving a general political settlement in the Arab-Israeli conflict, and different international frameworks for this goal.

  • February 15, 1969

    Memorandum from Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs [ISA] Paul Warnke to Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, 'Stopping the Introduction of Nuclear Weapons Into the Middle East'

    Assistant Secretary of Defense Paul Warnke wrote this memo to the Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird to alert him to the new reality that Israel may already possess nuclear weapons or was very close to that point. Warnke proposed that Laird “consider another serious, concerted, and sustained effort to push Israel to halt its work on strategic missiles and nuclear weapons.”

  • February 17, 1969

    Telephone Conversation Transcript, Henry Kissinger and William P. Rogers

    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee was reviewing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty for ratification and its chairman, J. William Fulbright (D-Ark), wanted to know where Israel stood on the Treaty. Believing that the issue should be handled at the White House level, Rogers proposed a meeting with Kissinger, Laird, and CIA director Richard Helms. Agreeing to schedule a meeting, Kissinger acknowledged that the issue was also “political.”

  • February 20, 1969

    Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty Excluded from Katzenbach Committee Restrictions

    Henry Kissinger informs President Nixon of the 303 Committee’s determination that RFE and RL are not “private voluntary organizations” and not subject to the policy recommendations of the Katzenbach Committee ban on covert federal funding

  • February 20, 1969

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on Collaboration with Britain on Development of Nuclear Energy

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of External Affairs, Shri Sitaram Jaipuria, on communication with the UK government in regard to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

  • February 20, 1969

    Telegram from the Indian Embassy in Peru on 'Indo-Peruvian Cultural Institute

    Discusses the establishment of the Indo-Peruvian Cultural Institute

  • February 27, 1969

    Memorandum from Ralph Earle, Office of International Security Affairs to Secretary of Defense Laird, 'Stopping the Introduction of Nuclear Weapons Into the Middle East'

    Ralph Earle, a senior official at the Pentagon’s Office of International Security Affairs [DOD/ISA] who had worked closely with Warnke, sent Laird a memorandum, requesting a meeting with Rogers, Kissinger, and Helms on the Israeli nuclear problem. The paper further restated the recommendation to keep the issue out of the National Security Council process.

  • March 13, 1969

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on the Reaction of Nuclear Powers to India's Refusal to Sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in its Present Form

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of External Affairs, Shri Dinesh Singh, on the reaction of larger powers to India's attitude and refusal to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in its present form.

  • March 14, 1969

    Memorandum from Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard, 'Computers for Israel'

    This memo from Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard concerns Israeli efforts to acquire high speed computers for use in a weapons program, and recommends that the United States should oppose these efforts.

  • March 17, 1969

    Memorandum from Secretary of Defense Laird to Secretary of State, 'Stopping the Introduction of Nuclear Weapons into the Middle East'

    Colonel Robert P. Pursley, discussed the Israeli nuclear issue with other senior officials at the Pentagon, and drafted a memorandum that the Defense Secretary sent to Rogers, Kissinger, and Helms on 14 March 1969. Believing it is necessary to convey “a sense of urgency,” the memorandum restated the earlier [Warnke’s] points about the need for a meeting and included new intelligence about Israeli efforts to acquire high speed computers for use in a weapons program.

  • March 20, 1969

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on India's Position Regarding the Acquisition of a Nuclear Umbrella From Friendly Nuclear Powers

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of External Affairs, Shri Dinesh Singh, on India's response to the Chief of the Indian Army's plead for a nuclear umbrella from friendly atomic countries in the event of a nuclear attack on India.

  • March 26, 1969

    Memorandum from Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 'Nuclear Missile Capability in Israel'

    A proposal from JCS Chairman Earle Wheeler favored a presidential-level approach and the application of pressure. Wheeler presented a range of options but recommended a demand to “cease-and-desist” a specific nuclear-related activity.

  • March 28, 1969

    Letter from Secretary of State William P. Rogers to Secretary of Defense

    In his 28 March reply Secretary Rogers agreed that the computer issue needed more examination along with a further review of policy on sensitive technology exports, but he virtually blew off Laird’s request for a meeting and for deliberation outside of NSC channels. Instead, he advised that the Israeli nuclear problem be studied by the NSC Under Secretaries Committee.

  • March 29, 1969

    Memorandum from Ralph Earle, Office of International Security Affairs, 'Stopping the Introduction of Nuclear Weapons Into the Middle East'

    This memo provided Laird with a scheme for a tough approach to Israel that involved a demarche to the Israeli government for “cease-and-desist” certain nuclear and missile [excised] activities and a demand for private assurances and, ultimately, Israel’s signature on the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). To seal such a deal Earle proposed an exchange of letters between President Richard Nixon and Prime Minister Golda Meir, for which he provided drafts.

  • April 11, 1969

    Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan

    Principal Secretary of the United Nations Commission for the Unification and Rehabilition of Korea Zouheir Kuzbari writes to Chef de Cabinet of the United Nations C.V. Narasimhan a letter concerning a vote of no-confidence against Education Minister Oh Byong Kwon and its implications for President Park Chung Hee, the United Nations Command's rejected proposal to North Korea about reducing tensions in the DMZ, and adminsitrative information about the UNCURK Committee.

  • April 11, 1969

    National Security Study Memorandum [NSSM] No. 40, Memorandum from Henry Kissinger to Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, and Director of Central Intelligence, 'Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program'

    Kissinger initiated a formal bureaucratic process to address how the U.S. government should respond to the emergence of a nuclear Israel, a review process managed by Kissinger’s NSC staff, known as NSSM 40. Through the NSSM Henry Kissinger tasked the DCI, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense to prepare a report for the President that included the latest intelligence findings on the Israeli nuclear program and policy options with recommendations that the President could use in making decisions.

  • April 15, 1969

    Memorandum from Henry A. Kissinger to President Nixon, 'Guidance to State and Defense Department on Our Attitude Toward Military Cooperation with the French'

    Kissinger informs Nixon of a discussion he had with British Defense Minister Denis Healey about French/U.S. military cooperation. Kissinger has told Healey that the French have not approached the U.S., and that any decision to aid France would have to be heavily weighed beforehand. Kissinger and Healey have agreed to inform one another should he be approached for such assistance by France in the future.

  • April 19, 1969

    Letter, UN Chef de Cabinet C.V. Narasimhan to Mr. Jean Gazarian, Concerning UNCURK Report

    Chef de Cabinet of the United Nations writes to Mr. Jean Gazarian in acknowledgement of his receipt of the 25 August 1968 to 19 April Report of UNCURK and Principal Secretary of the United Nations Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea Zouheir Kuzbari's letter. Kuzbari's letter concerns the ROK's and UNCURK's reaction to the shooting down of U.S. reconnaissance plane by North Koreans.