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China and South Asia

South Asia was one of the most important regions in China's international relations and foreign policy during the Cold War. This collection, drawn largely from the Chinese Foreign Ministry Archive, sheds light on China's relations with India, Pakistan, and, to a lesser extent, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) from 1949 onwards. It includes high-level records of conversation between Chinese and South Asian leaders, Chinese embassy dispatches from the region, and other types of records. See also the Digital Archive collection on the Sino-Indian Border War, 1962. (Photo: The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, meets Mao Zedong (right) in October 1956.) (

Popular Documents

October 19, 1954

Minutes of the First Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and Nehru

Zhou Enlai and Nehru discuss French and Portuguese colonialism in India and China, the Sino-American conflict, conflict in the Taiwan Straits, and the China issue at the United Nations.

April 29, 1954

Agreement between the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet Region of China and India

China and India put forth the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, which call for mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful co-existence.

October 3, 1950

Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and K.M. Panikkar

Zhou Enlai talks with K.M. Panikkar about a letter from Jawaharlal Nehru asking about the North Korea issue and U.S. involvement on the Korean peninsula. Zhou expresses that if American soldiers cross the 38th parallel, then China will take charge of the issue. Zhou also communicates the desire from the Chinese side for the peaceful settlement of the Korea issuen through the UN, which will first require foreign armed forces to exit the Korean peninsula.

October 19, 1954

Minutes of Chairman Mao Zedong’s First Meeting with Nehru

Mao Zedong and Nehru discuss Sino-Indian relations, the political situation in Asia, and the role of the United States in world politics.

April 23, 1960

Record of Talks between P.M. [Jawaharlal Nehru] and Premier Chou En-lai [Zhou Enlai] held on 23rd April, 1960, from 4.30 p.m. 7.45 p.m.

PM Nehru stated to Premier Zhou regarding his viewpoints on Sino-Indian border disputes by referring the historical legacy.