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Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950

This is a collection of primary source documents focusing on the difficult road to the establishment of the alliance between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. For a collections resource guide see The Sino-Soviet Alliance, 70 Years Later.(Image: Mao at Stalin's side on a ceremony arranged for Stalin's 71th birthday in Moscow in December 1949.)

Popular Documents

June 27, 1949

Memorandum of Conversation between Stalin and CCP Delegation

Stalin and the CCP delegation discuss the Soviet loan to China, the specialist the Soviets are to send to China, the occupation of Xinjiang, and the Chinese fleet.

December 16, 1949

Record of Conversation between I.V. Stalin and Chairman of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China Mao Zedong on 16 December 1949

First meeting between Mao and Stalin. The two discuss war and peace, as well as the question of the new treaty between China and the USSR. Stalin voices himself against signing a new treaty, citing the Yalta agreement. Mao promises to reconsider his position. Mao says he is in favor of keeping Soviet troops in Port Arthur. Stalin promises not to "run away" from China. Mao requests a credit of 300 million dollars, as well as the Soviet aid in liberating Taiwan. Stalin warns Mao not to give the Americans a pretext to intervene in China. Mao says that several countries are interested in establishing diplomatic relations with China but that China should wait before doing so. Stalin agrees with this strategy.

January 22, 1950

Record of Talks between I.V. Stalin and Chairman of the Central People's Government of the People’s Republic of China Mao Zedong

Conversation between Stalin and Mao concerning a proposed treaty of friendship and alliance between the USSR and China. Discussion includes: the prospects of future Japanese aggression, the Chinese-Eastern Railway (Mao and Stalin disagree on who should run its administration), the Port Arthur agreements (including the question of the port of Dalny), and economic cooperation. The economic cooperation focuses on a Soviet credit program for economic development in China, as well as the question of arms shipments to China. There is also discussion of Tibet.

October 26, 1949

Draft Reply to Mao Zedong's Telegram from Stalin via Molotov

Stalin agrees with Mao Zedong that North Korea is not yet ready to launch an assault, and reports that the Soviet Union has told North Korea to concentrate on developing liberated areas and guerrillas in South Korea.

February 4, 1949

Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the independence of Mongolia, the independence movement in Xinjiang, the construction of a railroad in Xinjiang, CCP contacts with the VKP(b), the candidate for Chinese ambassador to the USSR, aid from the USSR to China, CCP negotiations with the Guomindang, the preparatory commisssion for convening the PCM, the character of future rule in China, Chinese treaties with foreign powers, and the Sino-Soviet treaty.