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Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia

A collection of primary source documents from around the world related to the 1968 Prague Spring and the subsequent Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. The documents were originally obtained from the Central State Archive of Social Organizations of Ukraine, the Polish Institute of National Remembrance, the Russian State Archive of Contemporary History, and the National Archives of the Czech Republic, among other archives. The collection traces development of the democratization movement, the eventual military intervention, and the aftermath of the Soviet invasion. See also the Digital Archive collection on the Warsaw Pact. (Image, tanks in Prague)

Popular Documents

November 12, 1973

Memorandum of Conversation between Mao Zedong and Henry Kissinger

Secretary of State Henry Kissinger met with Chairman Mao and Zhou Enlai. The three discussed a large range of topics from Sino-Soviet relations to the Middle East to the influence of Chinese communism.

August 1968

Letter from Czech Communist Politicians to Brezhnev Requesting Soviet Intervention in Prague Spring

In August 1968 a small group of pro-Moscow hardliners in the Czechoslovak Communist Party, led by Vasil Bilak, wrote two letters requesting urgent assistance from the Soviet Union to thwart the imminent "counterrevolution" in Czechoslovakia. Both letters were addressed to Leonid Brezhnev, the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party (CPSU), and both were written in Russian to ensure that they would be read promptly. The first (and more important) letter was signed by Bilak and four of his colleagues: Drahomir Kolder, Alois Indra, Oldrich Svestka, and Antonin Kapek. Brezhnev later used the letter as a formal justification for the impending military invasion of Czechoslovakia.

June 3, 1971

Minutes of Conversation between Nicolae Ceausescu and Mao Zedong in Beijing on 3 June 1971

Mao Zedong and Nicolae Ceausescu discuss China's international reputation as a dogmatic dictatorship, especially among other Communist countries. They also discuss ping pong and scientific progress, specifically nuclear weapons and space exploration.

August 24, 1968

Telegrams from Romanian Embassy, Beijing, to Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 22-24 August 1968

A series of three telegrams reporting on a reception held at the Romanian Embassy in Beijing on August 23, 1968. Premier Zhou Enlai attended the event and gave a speech condemning the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.

March 29, 1968

Record of the Plenum of the Bulgarian Communist Party Central Communist, Sofia

Excerpts of the Minutes of discussion from the Bulgarian Communist Party Plenum regarding the situation in Czechoslovakia.