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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959

This is a collection of primary source documents focusing on the Sino-Soviet alliance from 1950 through 1959, or the period prior to the split. See also The Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984.

  • April 13, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Nikolai Bulganin

    Zhou Enlai requests and gives deadlines for the sending of aviation equipment and personnel from Moscow, mentioning that China is anticipating military conquests of the Danshan and Jinmen islands.

  • May 06, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Wang Jiaxiang

    The Chinese side is anxious for the dispatchment of advisors and ammunition that was requested from the Soviet Union, for use in aviation institute drills and for military campaigns in Dinghai, Jinmen, and Taiwan.

  • May 13, 1950

    Cable from Roshchin to Stalin, Relaying Mao's Request for Clarification on North Korea Taking Action Against South Korea

    The telegram relays a request from Mao, conveyed via Chinese Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai, seeking Stalin’s “personal clarifications” of his stand on a potential North Korean action to reunify the country. Mao sought the information after hearing a report from Kim, who had arrived that day in the Chinese capital for a secret two-day visit and clearly claimed that he had received Stalin’s blessing.

  • May 13, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Nikolai Bulganin

    Zhou Enlai presses Moscow to accelerate the dispatchment of requested equipment and personnel by the specified deadline so that the Chinese air force and navy can prepare for the military campaign to seize Zhoushan Island.

  • May 14, 1950

    Cable from Vyshinsky to Mao Zedong, Relaying Stalin's Stance on Permission for North Korea to attack South Korea

    The cable contains Stalin’s personal response to Mao's 13 May telegram. Using the code-name “Filippov,” Stalin confirms his agreement with the North Korean proposal to “move toward reunification,” contingent on Beijing’s assent.

  • July 05, 1950

    Ciphered telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai via Roshchin

    A telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai with regards to India's mediation in the PRC's entry into the UN, Chinese troop movements in preparation for a possible Southern/Allied counterattack, and Soviet planes flying over Manchuria.

  • July 11, 1950

    Telegram from the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee to Gao Gang

    Due to the Korean situation, the Soviet government requests the use of air and railway transport through China, to which the Chinese side agrees.

  • July 25, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Vyshinsky to Roshchin transmitting Message from Stalin to Zhou Enlai

    Telegram relaying message from Stalin to Mao and Zhou Enlai agreeing with proposal to train Chinese pilots on Soviet jet planes.

  • August 27, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Zhou Enlai

    Telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai answering his request for military advisors.

  • October 05, 1950

    Message from Stalin to Mao Zedong

    Stalin describes the US inability to engage in a "big war" and encourages Kim in his fight against the US. He also discusses the domestic situation in China.

  • October 14, 1950

    Letter from Zhou Enlai to Stalin

    Zhou Enlai requests military equipment and support for Chinese operations from the Soviet side, and asks for instructions on solving the issue of command relationships between the North Korean, Chinese, and Soviet forces.

  • October 28, 1950

    Telegram from Mao Zedong to I.V. Stalin, via Roshchin

    Mao Zedong asks for Soviet arms and permission to send naval advisers to Moscow to discuss the future of the Chinese navy.

  • November 08, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Mao Zedong to Filippov (Stalin)

    Request from Mao to Stalin for infantry arms, detailing specifically types and amounts of requested munitions.

  • November 09, 1950

    Protocol No. 78 of a Meeting of the Special Committee Under the Council of Ministers of the USSR

    Draft telegram to Roshchin on Chinese participation in the UN Security Council.

  • November 09, 1950

    CC Politburo Decision with Approved Message from Gromyko to Roshchin with Message for Zhou Enlai

    Telegram from Gromyko to Zhou Enlai advising the latter to turn down the invitation for China to participate in the UN Security Council. It also explains the circumstances under which the invitation was obtained.

  • November 17, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Zhou Enlai to Filippov (Stalin)

    Request from Zhou Enlai to Stalin for the rapid transfer of automobiles from Soviet forces on the Liaodong Peninsula rather than the Chinese rear.

  • November 17, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Zhou Enlai via Zakharov

    Stalin's affirmative response to Zhou Enlai's request of 16 November for automobiles.

  • December 04, 1950

    Memorandum of Conversation Between the Chinese Ambassador to the USSR and Gromyko

    Their discussion involves the idea of a definite Soviet victory in Korea, the failure of US soldiers and President Truman, the internal politics of the US; internal politics of China, the progress of the decision about Germany among the Soviets as well as other Western powers.

  • December 05, 1950

    VKP(b) CC Politburo decision with approved orders to Vyshinsky in New York and Roshchin in Beijing with message for Zhou Enlai

    Memorandums from the VKP(b) CC to Vyshinsky and Roshchin regarding the Soviet and PRC stances on discussions in the UN General Assembly and Security Council on the Chinese intervention in Korea.

  • December 08, 1950

    Letter from Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, and Chen Yun

    Zhou Enlai reports on Soviet replies to telegrams from the Chinese side.