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Digital Archive International History Declassified

September 04, 1958


This document was made possible with support from the Leon Levy Foundation, Chun & Jane Chiu Family Foundation

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    Memorandum detailing Chinese strategy in countering US support for Taiwan and US policy in Asia.
    "Memo, Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Soviet Embassy in China," September 04, 1958, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Fond 100 (1958), op. 51, papka 531, delo 5, Russian Foreign Ministry archives, Moscow, original in Chinese. Translated and Annotated by Zhang Shu Guang and Chen Jian.
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(1) As China’s influence in the international community rises day by day, the US imperialists’ policy of disregarding the Chinese people and not recognizing but shutting out the Chinese [Government] from international life is getting increasingly difficult and losing support of the peoples [all over the world].  In order to extricate itself from such a difficult position as well as to assure continuous control of Taiwan, [the US Government] has stepped up the realization of its “two-China” conspiracy.

(2) The following is the Chinese Government’s counter-measure against the [US] “two-China” plot:

1.  With regard to the situation in which China’s delegation and Jiang [Jieshi] Clique’s “delegation” join the same international organization or attend the same international conference.  Facing this situation, the Chinese side will resolutely demand to have the Jiang Clique elements driven out.  If [our request is] rejected, China will not cooperate with such an organization or conference and, thus, will have to withdraw with no hesitation.  In the past year China has already done this many times, including withdrawing from the Nineteenth World Convention of the Red Cross.  [China] has recently decided not to recognize the International Olympic Committee.  From now on, China will resolutely refuse to participate in any international organizations or conferences which invite or tolerate the participation of the Jiang Clique’s representatives.

2. With regard to the situation in which China’s delegation or individual and Jiang Clique’s individuals participate in the same international organization or international conference.  Such a situation, although in formality constituting no “two-China,” will in effect impress upon the [international] community that “two Chinas” co-exist, and is very likely to be used by [our] adversaries to their advantage.  Therefore, China will from now on refuse to participate in any international organizations or conferences involving such a situation.  China will also consider withdrawing from those international organizations, such as the International Law Association, at an appropriate moment.

For those overseas Chinese individuals who participate in the international organizations or conferences which have already invited Chinese delegates, [we] will decide by looking at these [overseas Chinese individuals’] attitude toward politics.  If they do not act in the name of the Jiang Clique but represent their [residential] countries, [we] will not treat them as complicating the “two-China” issue.  However, [we] must not relax our vigilance because they might disguise their appearance but in effect carry out conspiratorial activities [related to the creation of “two Chinas”].

3. With regard to the situation in which an international organization which has already had the Jiang representatives, or its branch organization, invites us to attend conferences even if Jiang Clique’s delegates are not invited.  Such a situation definitely constitutes a “two-China” reality.  Moreover, it will leave others with a wrong impression that China is anxious to participate in the activities of those international organizations.  Therefore, China will not be part of these organizations or conferences.

(3) Controlled by the United States, the United Nations and its Special Organizations have generally retained Jiang’s representatives and kept rejecting the restoration of China’s legitimate positions [in these international organizations].  The following are our counter-measures.

1. China will not dispatch any representatives (either of the Chinese Government or of other organizations) to participate in any conferences organized by the United Nations and its Special Organizations.  No individual of Chinese citizenship, either as a representative or a staff member of other international organizations, is permitted to contact or conduct negotiations with the United Nations and its special organizations.

2. China will not provide the United Nations or its special organizations with any materials or statistics, nor will China endorse that [our] brother countries publish any materials concerning China in the journals of the United Nations and its special organizations.

3. With regard to those international conferences already having certain relations with the United Nations or its special organizations which China considers participating, our policy is as follows:

a. China will support any resolutions of the conferences which only generally mention the United Nations Charter.  China will not comply with any resolutions of the conferences which have a good deal to do with the United Nations or its special organizations.  However, if these resolutions are favorable to world peace and friendly cooperation [among all the nations], China will not oppose.

b. China will not attend any sessions [of the conferences] which are designated to discuss the United Nations or its special organizations.

c. China will refuse to attend any sessions where United Nations representatives speak in the name of conference advisers or as key-note speakers; neither will Chinese [delegates] listen to United Nations representatives’ report or presentation.  However, Chinese delegates will be allowed to participate in sessions where United Nations representatives participate in or give speeches as ordinary participants.  If UN representatives deliver speeches or remarks to insult or slander China, Chinese delegates will have to refute them right on the spot and then leave.  If some Jiang Clique elements are included in the UN delegation, Chinese delegates must point out that this ignored China’s interests and then, protest and refuse to participate.

d. No Chinese delegate is authorized to express any opinion on whether China will establish, in some fashion, a consultative relationship with the United Nations or its special organizations.  If any international conference is to vote on this issue, Chinese delegates cannot but abstain from the voting.

(4) China asserts that [its] participation in international conferences and organizations is only one way to establish contacts and relations in the international community, which may bring about some results in terms of enhancing China’s visibility and obtaining some information on how certain specific [international] projects progress.  However, no or minimum participation in the international conferences or organizations will not keep China from developing vigorously, nor will it prevent the Chinese people from getting acquainted or making friends with other nations; no or minimum participation in some international conferences or organizations does not mean that China adopts a negative or protective attitude toward [international] cultural exchange activities.  [In regard to these activities], China may take part in other fashions.  On the other hand, China’s non-participation may put so much pressure on these conferences or organizations that they will have difficulties in organizing activities thus making them discontented with the United States.  As a result, more and more criticism and condemnation of the “two-China” policy may be aroused.  In short, China remains willing to cooperate with those international conferences and organizations which are in China’s interests [and] have no intention to impair China’s sovereignty.

[We are certain] that, as long as we have the Soviet-led socialist countries’ support, our just cause of smashing America’s “two-China” conspiracy will achieve a complete success.