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Digital Archive International History Declassified

July 29, 1954


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    Soviet Premier Georgy M. Malenkov and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai discuss the incidents between China and Taiwan, the US’s support of Taiwan, and the US bloc in the South Pacific. They contemplate various means through which China could prevent further provocations by Taiwan and how to break apart the American bloc. Zhou Enlai also offers suggestions concerning the elections in Korea that would help accomplish Soviet goals for the area.
    "Memorandum of Conversation, between Soviet Premier Georgy M. Malenkov and Zhou Enlai," July 29, 1954, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, AVPRF f. 06, o. 13a, d. 25, II. 8. Obtained by Paul Wingrove and translated by Gary Goldberg.
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Deputies to the PRC Minister of
Foreign Affairs Zhang Wentian and Wang Jiaxiang

Cde. Zhou Enlai expresses ideas about several issues of the international situation.

Having suffered defeat in Indochina, the US government is trying to provoke conflict in other regions of the Far East. The chief target of these conflicts is China. With the support of the US the Jiang Jieshi [Chiang Kai-shek] pirates are infringing upon the freedom of navigation in the open ocean and plundering ships headed for China. Guomindang aircraft make raids on the Chinese coast.

Recently the Americans moved aircraft carriers to the maritime boundaries of China. Several days ago aircraft operating from these aircraft carriers shot down two Chinese aircraft in the area of the island of Hainan.

Preparations are being made to conclude a defense pact between Jiang Jieshi and the US government. The Americans still have not decided to sign the pact. They cannot fail to understand that this act will provoke still stronger anti-American feelings in China and might hinder the settling of differences with China in the future.

The US government will continue efforts directed at forging a bloc in Southeast Asia. Evidently, this bloc will initially include a limited number of countries: the US, Britain, France, New Zealand, and Australia. It might also include the Philippines and Thailand. The US will exert pressure on Indonesia, which is wavering, trying to force it to join this bloc.

In light of these facts the CCP CC intends:

To again raise the question of the liberation of Taiwan and take steps to disrupt the conclusion of the pact between the US government and the Jiang Jieshi regime. After he, Zhou Enlai, returns to Beijing, a declaration of the PRC government is supposed to be published in which it will be pointed out that at the present time a source of military conflict exists in only one place, Taiwan; with US government aid, the Jiang Jieshi clique is committing outrages at sea, raiding Chinese territory, and essentially committing hostile acts against China;

To strengthen the defense of the Chinese coastline. The navy and air force will need to be strengthened to do this. The Chinese Armed Forces must be ready at any moment to halt a violation of the maritime or air boundaries of China;

To achieve the failure of the organization of an aggressive bloc in Southeast Asia. To do this means tearing their allies away from the US and exacerbating of the differences between the US and other capitalist countries.

Cde. G. M. Malenkov replies that he heard the ideas of Zhou Enlai with pleasure and says that questions about measures connected with the international situation are examined and decided in the CPSU CC. Cde. Zhou Enlai's statements deserve great attention. The goal of disrupting the conclusion of a pact between the US and Jiang Jieshi is correct. The question of Taiwan is undoubtedly a critically important problem for China. He agrees with Zhou Enlai's comment that the goal of achieving an exacerbation of the differences between the US and other bourgeois countries is important.

Cde. Zhou Enlai informs [Malenkov] of the conversations with the Indonesian ambassadors in Delhi, Rangoon, and Beijing: they invited him to visit Indonesia. Zhou Enlai could not avail himself of this invitation since he was soon to return to the Geneva Conference. During Zhou Enlai's stay in Geneva, the Indonesian minister of foreign affairs, who was in the Netherlands, sent the Indonesian ambassador in Paris to Zhou and repeated the invitation to visit Indonesia. It has become clear from conversations with Indonesian ambassadors that the time has come for a decision to conclude a non-aggression pact with China. Zhou Enlai proposed that a draft of this pact be developed in Beijing by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs together with the Indonesian ambassador in order for it to be possible to sign it during Zhou Enlai's visit to Jakarta. Zhou Enlai is supposed to visit Indonesia in August.

Cde. G. M. Malenkov wishes him success. He agrees with Zhou Enlai's comment about Indonesia and says that the inclusion of Indonesia in the American bloc being forged in Southeast Asia cannot be permitted. He talks briefly about conversations with [Chairman of the All-India Peace Council Dr. Saifuddin] Kitchlu and Subandrio, the Indonesian ambassador to the USSR, noting in this context that India, and, to a certain degree, Indonesia are gravitating toward a rapprochement with the PRC and USSR. He stresses that the conclusion of a Sino-Indian agreement is a quite successful step by the PRC government. The principles on which this agreement is based are being propagandized in the Soviet press in every possible way.

Cde. Zhou Enlai informs [Malenkov] of a conversation with V.K. Krishna Menon, the Indian [permanent] representative to the UN, about the issue of Korea. Menon suggested that elections be held separately in North and South Korea, after which a national Korean body would be formed. Menon tried to also find out what the Chinese reaction would be if the United Nations expressed a desire to convene a Geneva conference again to discuss the Korean issue. He, Zhou Enlai, replied to Menon that China would support the idea of convening a Geneva Conference in order to continue the discussion of the Korean issue. He thinks that, if a Geneva conference were convened again, its membership would have to be expanded, inviting India to participate in it.

Cde. G. M. Malenkov says that Menon also raised this question with Cde. Molotov.

Zhou Enlai says that in connection with the intention of the PRC government to accelerate the strengthening of coastal defense it will evidently have to reexamine existing plans to develop the navy and air force. Zhou Enlai plans to immediately deal with this question on return to Beijing.

Cde. G. M. Malenkov notes that strengthening the defense of the Chinese coast, the navy, and the air force is an important goal.

Referring to the fact that the Soviet military comrades recommend that a long-range heavy bomber division (of TU-4s) be created in China, Cde. Zhou Enlai says that, in the opinion of the Chinese military, these aircraft are obsolete and it is desirable for a division of long-range aircraft to be equipped with jet technology.

Cde. G. M. Malenkov replies that the Soviet military comrades will look into this issue.

Cde. Zhou Enlai asks whether the PRC government might expect the arrival of a government delegation of senior Soviet comrades in Beijing to celebrate the fifth anniversary of the Chinese People's Republic. If such a delegation can be sent then the PRC government will send an official invitation.

Cde. G. M. Malenkov replies that, of course, a delegation will be sent; the CPSU CC will determine the composition of such a delegation.

Cde. G. M. Malenkov asks that greetings be sent to Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, and the other comrades in the CCP CC.

Recorded by M. Kapitsa

Authenticated by: [illegible signature]
Distributed to members of the CPSU CC Presidium
12 August 1954
to Cde. V. M. Molotov


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