July 20, 1988
Agreement between Angola, Cuba and South Africa, 'Principles for a Peaceful Settlement in Southwestern Africa'
This document was made possible with support from Leon Levy Foundation
Principles for a peaceful settlement in Southwestern Africa,
20 July 1988
The Governments of the People’s Republic of Angola, the Republic of Cuba, and the Republic of South Africa have reached agreement on a set of essential principles to establish the basis for peace in the southwestern region of Africa. They recognize that each of these principles is indispensable to a comprehensive settlement.
A. Implementation of Resolution 435/78 of the Security Council of the United Nations. The parties shall agree upon and recommend to the Secretary-General of the United Nations a date for the commencement of implementation of UNSCR 435/78.
B. The Governments of the People’s Republic of Angola and of the Republic of South Africa shall, in conformity with the dispositions of Resolution 435/78 of the Security Council of the United Nations, cooperate with the Secretary-General with a view toward ensuring the independence of Namibia through free and fair elections, abstaining from any action that could prevent the execution of said Resolution.
C. Redeployment toward the North and the staged and total withdrawal of Cuban troops from the territory of the People’s Republic of Angola on the basis of an agreement between the People’s Republic of Angola and the Republic of Cuba and the decision of both states to solicit the on-site verification of that withdrawal by the Security Council of the United Nations.
D. Respect for the sovereignty, sovereign equality, and independence of states and for the territorial integrity and inviolability of borders.
E. Non-interference in the internal affairs of states.
F. Abstention from the threat and utilization of force against the territorial integrity and independence of states.
G. The acceptance of responsibility of states not to allow their territory to be used for acts of war, aggression, or violence against other states.
H. Reaffirmation of the right of the peoples of the southwestern region of Africa to self-determination, independence, and equality of rights.
I. Verification and monitoring of compliance with the obligations resulting from the agreements that may be established.
J. Commitment to comply in good faith with the obligations undertaken in the agreements that may be established and to resolve the differences via negotiations.
K. Recognition of the role of the Permanent Members of the Security Council of the United Nations as guarantors for the implementation of agreements that may be established.
L. The right to each state to peace, development, and social progress.
M. African and international cooperation for the settlement of the problems of the development of the southwestern region of Africa.
N. Recognition of the mediating role of the Government of the United States of America.
The Geneva Protocol of 5 August 1988
Delegations representing the Governments of the People’s Republic of Angola / Republic of Cuba, and the Republic of South Africa, meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, 2–5 August 1988, with the mediation of Dr. Chester A Crocker, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, United States of America, have agreed as follows:
1. Each side agrees to recommend to the Secretary-General of the United Nations that 1 November 1988 be established as the date for implementation of UNSCR 435/78.
2. Each side agrees to the establishment of a target date for signature of the tripartite agreement among Angola, South Africa, and Cuba not later than 10 September 1988.
3. Each side agrees that a schedule acceptable to all parties for the redeployment toward the North and the staged and total withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola must be established by Angola and Cuba, who will request on-site verification by the Security Council of the United Nations. The parties accept 1 September 1988 as the target date for reaching agreement on that schedule and all related matters.
4. The complete withdrawal of South African forces from Angola shall begin not later than 10 August 1988 and be completed not later than 1 September 1988.
5. The parties undertake to adopt the necessary measures of restraint in order to maintain the existing de facto cessation of hostilities. South Africa stated its willingness to convey this commitment in writing to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Angola and Cuba shall urge SWAPO to proceed likewise as a step prior to the ceasefire contemplated in resolution 435/78 which will be established prior to 1 November 1988. Angola and Cuba shall use their good offices so that, once the total of withdrawal of South Africa troops from Angola is completed, and within the context also of the cessation of hostilities in Namibia, SWAPO’s forces will be deployed to the north of the 16th parallel. The parties deemed it appropriate that, during the period before 1 November 1988, a representative of the United Nations Secretary-General be present in Luanda to take cognizance of any disputes relative to the cessation of hostilities and agreed that the combined military committee contemplated in paragraph 9 can be an appropriate venue for reviewing complaints of this nature that may arise.
6. As of 10 August 1988, no Cuban troops will deploy or be south of the line Chitado-Ruacana-Caleque-Naulila-Cuamato-N’Giva. Cuba furthermore stated that upon completion of the withdrawal of the South African troops from Angola not later than 1 September 1988 and the restoration by the People’s Republic of Angola and of its sovereignty over its international boundaries, the Cuban troops that lie east of meridian 17 and south of parallel 15 degrees, 30 minutes, provided they are not subject to harassment.
7. Following the complete withdrawal of South African forces from Angola, the Government of Angola shall guarantee measures for the provision of water and power supply to Namibia.
8. With a view toward minimizing the risk of battlefield incidents and facilitating the exchange of technical information related to implementation of the agreements reached, direct communications shall be established not later than 20 August 1988 between the respective military commanders at appropriate headquarters along the Angola / Namibia border.
9. Each side recognizes that the period from 1 September 1988, by which time South African forces will have completed their withdrawal from Angola, and the date established for implementation of UNSCR 435, is a period of particular sensitivity, for which specific guidelines for military activities are presently lacking. In the interest of maintaining the ceasefire and maximizing the conditions of the orderly introduction of UNTAG, the sides agree to establish a combined military committee to develop additional practical measures to build confidence and reduce the risk of unintended incidents. They invite the United States membership on the committee.
10. Each side will act in accordance with the Governors Island principles, including paragraph E (non-interference in the internal affairs of states) and paragraph G (the acceptance of responsibility of states to allow their territory to be used for acts of war, aggression, or violence against other states).
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA:
Geneva, 5 August 1988
Lays out the conditions for the withdrawal of foreign forces from Namibia, agreed on by Angola, Cuba, and South Africa.
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