Addressed to the Oblispolkom, or district administration and executive committee, this report shows concerns about the Chinese population in the far eastern Primorsky region. The “Millionka” were a series of large apartments that housed thousands of Chinese in the Chinese quarter of the Vladivostok and their destruction was part of a series of Stalinist deportations which targeted the Chinese and Korean populations of the city. This document shows the Soviet administrator's deep suspicion of Asian communities and ethnic connections, which they perceived as mysterious, limitless, transnational, and inevitably related to “banditism,” “hooliganism,” drug use, and various criminal activities. The report identifies the Millionka as home to a wide variety of criminal activity and disorder (drug use, prostitution, blackmarket trade, drunkenness), as well as a source of "an anti-Soviet element with counterrevolutionary goals."
September 30, 1930
Resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Soviet of the People’s Commissars of the RSFSR, 'About the Practical Conduct of Nationalities Policy in the Far East Region in Regard to Chinese and Koreans'
This document was made possible with support from Leon Levy Foundation
Resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
and Soviet of the People’s Commissars of the RSFSR
about the practical conduct of nationalities policy in the Far East region in regard to Chinese and Koreans
Having heard the report of Cde. Dosov about practical measures of nationalities policy in the Far Eastern region, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Soviet of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR ascertains, that along with the well-known achievements in the matter of serving the economic, cultural, and daily needs of Korean and Chinese laborers, a wide variety of inadequacies still remain, such as:
a) the absence of a systematic and decisive battle against the appearance of interethnic (mezhnational’noi) tension in the city and countryside, with condescending [and] disrespectful relations to Chinese and Korean laborers on the part of the European population and even to a large extent from workers within the Soviet apparatus and the Russian workers;
b) extremely poorly organized work regarding the international education (vospitaniiu) of Chinese and Korean workers, as well as European workers, engaged in enterprises;
c) an enduring inequality in labor conditions between the Chinese and Korean workers in comparison to workers of other nationalities, evident in their being equipped with worse tools, specialized clothing, food, work spaces in mines, and so on;
d) the lack of a network of national schools serving the Chinese and Korean population, and their weak quality and condition; the completely insufficient supply of textbooks, study aids and other materials; the obstructions of politically foreign teaching cadres, who have received their training in foreign teaching institutions [and from foreign] teachers; the highly unsatisfactory teaching of the Russian language as a separate subject in Korean and Chinese schools, which has led to the emergence of private schools for Chinese and Koreans with instruction in Russian; the highly insufficient network of political-educative institutions and their weak growth;
e) the insufficient struggle against capitalist and even non-capitalist forms of organization of labor among Chinese workers at state enterprises (the institute of elders and dzhan guidov) and [the enduring] forms of servitude and the exploitation of the labor of these workers at private enterprises;
f) the absence of a decisive battle against the capitalist rent of land, with traces of servitude (kabal’nymi) and the use of hired labor in agriculture and the weak attention to the organization of Korean and Chinese poor peasants in the battle against servitude and capitalist relations in the countryside;
g) the absence of preparation and the insufficient attention to the collectivization of Korean households, accompanied by large losses, the distortion of the party line, and also [the absence of attention] to the cooperativization of Korean fishing enterprises;
h) the insufficient recruitment into organs of state administration of Chinese and Korean workers and the absence of attention to the social background of those chosen, the consequences of which is the emergence of obstructionism in the state organs by socially-foreign (chudzhdymi) elements;
i) weak work at encouraging Chinese and Korean workers to active participation in social work during production (meetings, socialist competition, the raising of [the quality of] industrial labor and so on);
j) the weak administration of work among Korean rural soviets on the part of districts and regions
k) the unsatisfactory implementation of the decrees of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee from 6 November 1926 regarding the regulation of the question of the further resettlement and organization of Koreans who have immigrated to the Ussuriisk region of the DVK, which is a result of the insufficient attention on the part of the state central and local organs to the politically important work of the settling of the border regions with settlers from the central regions of the Soviet Union.
[continuing discussion of measures designed to address all of these issues…]
“Obligate the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture of the RSFSR to devise a plan for the resettlement (on the basis of collectivization) of Koreans in the near future to the deep regions of the Far Eastern region and the resettlement of the border areas with settlers from the interior regions of the RSFSR, having provided sufficient funds to enable this and to serve [their needs] in the new regions.”
Chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, M. Kalinin
Deputy Chairman of the Soviet of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR, Riskulov
Secretary of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, A. Kiselev
30 September 1930
Printed in 20 copies
The All-Russian Central Executive Committee lists inadequacies in meeting the needs of Korean and Chinese laborers in the Far Eastern region of the Soviet Union. Problems include interethnic tensions, inequality in labor conditions, inequality in education, capitalist economic activity, lack of Chinese and Korean in state administration and social organizations, and unsatisfactory implementation of resettlement plans.
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