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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • December 11, 1979

    Minutes of the meeting of the National Directorate of the Socialist Party

    These are the minutes of the meeting of the National Directorate of the Socialist Party. During this meeting the decision was made to accept the deployment and vote for it in the Parliamentary debate, even if the PSI was not part of the government yet. The minutes contain a long presentation by the future Defense Minister, Lelio Lagorio, which explains the strategic rationale behind the deployment. A lively debate follows, during which Craxi and Lagorio steer the Central Committee towards accepting the deployment.

  • January 17, 1980

    Meeting of the Central Committee of the Italian Socialist Party

    During a meeting of the Central Committee of the Socialist Party, Bettino Craxi presents his point of view on the tense international situation.

  • October, 1983

    Evolution of the deployment of Soviet intermediate missiles

    An exhaustive memo on the deployment of the Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces from 1977 to 1983.

  • October, 1983

    Memorandum comparing the Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces and the Anglo – French forces capable of reaching the Soviet Union.

    A comparison between the Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces and the Anglo – French system capable of reaching the Soviet Union. The memo uses data to demonstrate that the Soviet INF outnumbered by far NATO nuclear forces.

  • October, 1983

    Memorandum on Geneva INF negotiations and East-West dialogue, with particular focus on Italian-Soviet relations.

    A memo about the relationship between Italy and the Soviet Union during the Geneva negotiations. It suggests some steps that Italy should undertake to keep alive the East-West dialogue and to preserve Italian economic interests.

  • October 28, 1983

    Memorandum on the Ottawa meeting of NATO's Nuclear Planning Group

    Some reflections on the outcome of the NATO Nuclear Planning Group meeting in Ottawa. The Italian government praised the NATO resolution to keep the INF at a minimum level of deterrence, while critiquing the Soviet refusal to compromise.

  • November, 1983

    Translation of a letter from Nicolae Ceausescu to West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl about Euromissiles

    A letter from Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu to Helmut Kohl. Ceausescu makes some suggestions to ease the Geneva negotiations: the Warsaw Pact could accept “not taking into account the UK and French missiles”: the German government could “postpone the deployment [of the Intermediate missiles] to the end of 1984 or the beginning of 1985”; or the NATO and the Warsaw Pact countries should organize a conference “to discuss the issue of the Intermediate Range Missiles”.

  • November 12, 1983

    Memorandum on INF and START negotiations

    This memo to Prime Minister Bettino Craxi argues against the merging of the INF and START negotiations proposed by the Finnish government and backed by Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau. The memo suggests that the proposal could jeopardize the Geneva talks and harm European interests.

  • November 16, 1983

    Antonio Badini, Outline of General Considerations

    A memo to Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi from his Diplomatic Counselor Antonio Badini. Badini warns against the latest Soviet proposals. He suggests that agreeing to them without making any concessions regarding the deployment of American missiles would be tantamount to the realization of a long term goal of the Soviet Union, i.e. the decoupling between the Western European and the American defense system. […] He writes that the Soviet proposals “can be taken as a possible basis for an agreement is surprising. We can only hope that this fact does not imply that, from a political and psychological standpoint, the process of Finlandization of Europe is far more advanced than we believed thus far.”

  • 1984

    Memorandum on East-West Dialogue

    This memo expresses the regrets of the Italian government for the failure of the INF negotiations. According to the memo, Italy “committed itself to the normalization of the East – West dialogue” and proposed resuming Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction talks.

  • April 04, 1984

    Constraints on the foreign policy of the Netherlands

    A memo to Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi from his foreign policy advisor Antonio Badini about the domestic constraints on Dutch foreign policy.