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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 13, 1967

    Telegram from Ambassador Trivedi, 'Non-Aligned Meeting'

    Different points of Mexico and Brazil on the denuclearization treaty of Latin America

  • July 06, 1967

    Argentina Naval Intelligence Service, 'Brazil: Prospects in the Field of Nuclear Energy'

    This is an Intelligence Report regarding Brazil’s nuclear activities prepared by the Argentine Navy, which seeks to estimate Brazil’s nuclear intentions in the near future. It is mainly based on newspaper articles as well as declarations of Brazilian high-ranked scientists, diplomats and military officials.

  • October 04, 1967

    Minutes of the Fortieth Session of the Brazilian National Security Council

    Guidelines for the Brazilian nuclear policy in Costa e Silva’s government (1967-1969) and defines the diplomatic attitude of Brazil regarding the negotiations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). During the meeting of the National Security Council, participants agreed on the need to cooperate with another country to start a national nuclear program. On the NPT negotiations, the members of the National Security Council agreed to establish a condition to adhere to the Treaty: the defense of the right to develop peaceful nuclear explosions. Several ministers defended the possibility of using nuclear energy in the future for international security reasons.

  • October 06, 1967

    Telegram from the Indian Ambassador to Brazil, 'Nuclear Cooperation Between India and Brazil'

    Brazil has entered cooperative agreements with many countries and is would like to work with India as well.

  • November 07, 1967

    25th Meeting of Non-Aligned Group with Discussion on Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    Mexican and Brazilian representatives disagree on if peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are allowed by the Latin American treaty.

  • November 07, 1967

    Complaint by [Government of] Brazil Regarding Czechoslovak Transport of Guerrilla Fighters from Cuba to Latin America

    Head of the 1st Administration of the Ministry of the Interior Josef Houska reports a complaint by the Brazilian government regarding to Czechoslovak assistance of transporting guerrilla fighters from Cuba to Latin America. Brazilian government issued an official warning that relations between Brazil and Czechoslovak could be deteriorated in connection with the support for Cuba. Houska says Brazilian officials' argument could be proof that Czechoslovak specially selected officials making technical arrangement for the transits belong to some section of the Czechoslovak civil service. However, the Czechoslovak authorities cannot be blamed that they go along with the activities of the Cuban Embassy in Prague, which controls the transport of the guerrillas since an embassy is entitled to engage in full diplomatic activities in a friendly country. Houska argues that the Brazilian government does not have conceret evidence for the direct accusation of Czechoslovakia. The position of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs could have been the result of pressure by ultra-reactionary forces in domestic policy which are concerned by the opposition activities in Brazil and abroad.

  • November 17, 1967

    Operation MANUEL: Origins, Development and Aims

    Comrade Josef Houska submits a document concerning issues related to cooperation with the Cuban intelligence service especially the Operation MANUEL to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. The Operational MANUEL started in 1962 when the Cuban intelligence asked the Czechoslovak resident in Havana to arrange a transit through Prague for Venezuelan nationals who underwent guerrilla training in Cuba. In 1964 talks were held between Cuban and Czechoslovak intelligence services but no formal agreement of the tasks and responsibilities was concluded between the two. The Soviet government was informed about the Operation MANUEL and stated its agreement with the project. Houska says that the main objective of the operation is the education and training of revolutionary cadres from Latin America and the organization of combat groups. Participants of the operation were not confined to cadres from among the ranks of communist parties but also included members from various nationalist and anti-American groupings. The routes of individual participants in the operation were determined by the Cuban intelligence service who mainly directed the Operation MANUEL. Houska says problems that arisen in the course of the operation were solved in collaboration with Cuban and the Soviet authorities. The document cautioned about counter-espionage institutions' increasing interests in the operation and the fact that the US intelligence service agents were among the operation participants. Houska says refusal to offer assistance would have a negative impact on Cuba and Czechoslovakia would lose control over the operation.

  • December 05, 1967

    Letter from the Director of Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Uriel da Costa Ribeiro to the Director of the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) Oscar A. Quihillalt

    Ribeiro conveys the Brazilian interest in establishing a nuclear cooperation agreement with Argentina, expressed during the visit of the Brazilian mission to the inauguration of Ezeiza Atomic facility in Buenos Aires in 1967.

  • December 29, 1967

    Letter, Director of the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) to the Foreign Minister on Nuclear Cooperation with Brazil

    The Director of the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) writes to the Foreign Minister on a visit by a group of Brazilian officials and the details of a possible agreement for nuclear cooperation between the two countries.

  • 1968

    Draft Argentinian-Brazilian Agreement in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

    Draft of a nuclear cooperation agreement between Argentina and Brazil, very likely the same one given by Brazilian authorities to the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) mission during the latter’s visit to Brazil in March 1968.

  • January 15, 1968

    Report, Argentinian Ministry of Foreign Relations, 'Nuclear Energy'

    State of nuclear energy development in Brazil and Argentina.

  • March 23, 1968

    Airgram from the Embassy of the US in Rio De Janeiro to the Department of State, 'Assessment of Brazilian Nuclear Device Capability'

    The US Embassy in Rio De Janeiro sends airgram to the Department of State with a technical and political assessment of Brazil's nuclear capacity.

  • April 09, 1968

    Excerpts from Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev’s speech at the April 1968 Plenum of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party

    Brezhnev discusses negotiations with the United States over the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • May 16, 1968

    Telegram from the Consul of the US in Sao Paulo to the Department of State, 'Brazilian Centrifuge Program'

    Information about the classified Brazilian centrifuge program.

  • September 04, 1968

    Aide Mémoire, 'Sale of 5 Tons of Uranium to Brazil'

    A Brazilian diplomat to Argentina expresses an interest in acquiring five tons of uranium free from safeguards to Argentine authorities. CNEA and the foreign ministry of Argentina approved the request, taking into consideration the favorable diplomatic relations between the two countries at the moment.

  • December 20, 1968

    National Atomic Energy Commission Report to the Argentinian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Brazil’s Request for Uranium

    This document reports on CNEA’s position on the exports of uranium to Brazil and reports that the operation will not produce any economic benefit. Nevertheless, it is favorable to the export as a token of Argentina’s good will in regard to nuclear cooperation with Brazil.

  • January 31, 1969

    Memorandum by Head of Planning Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission José Luis Alegria on Brazil’s Request for Uranium

    The document highlights that the export of Argentine uranium to Brazil will be a difficult operation due to diplomatic hurdles.

  • March 28, 1969

    A Joint Communiqué about West German Minister Gerhard Stoltenberger's Visit to Brazil

    This Joint Communiqué provides details about conversations between West German Minister, Doctor Gerhard Stoltenberger, and members of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and their plans for the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology. The framework of the agreement included topics of research such as nuclear energy, space and aeronautical research, oceanography, scientific documentation and electronic data processing.

  • April 02, 1969

    Telegram to the President of Brazil on the Draft of the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany

    A Telegram/Cable sent by the Minister of External Relations, José de Magalhães, to the President of the Republic of Brazil, regarding the draft of the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany.

  • May 02, 1969

    Brief Study of Draft of the General Agreement on Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany

    This document is an evaluation of the General Agreement on Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany. It provides the guidelines of the Brazilian Nuclear Policy, which stimulated the continuation of programs, contacts and agreements in the nuclear field. Moreover, the document reveals that the Brazilian government understood that it needed the cooperation of foreign partners, like West Germany, in order to advance its nuclear program.